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Often, writing an essay requires using additional sources of information. To not to get caught in plagiarism while using citations and quotations, it is necessary to make bibliographic references to the source at the end of the page or the entire essay. What has to be taken into account? There are many nuances that need to be considered in order for you to fit into specific criteria for evaluating an essay. Therefore, it is not a simple task. Some college students consider looking for an essay writing help but following our pieces of advice, you will be able to complete your paper perfectly, whether you are using citations or quotations.
Often students confuse the citation with the quotation writing, completely forgetting the meanings of these words, which leads to many mistakes and results in low grades.
- Citation for essay means ‘give credit’ (refer to any source you use in your essay). This is something that often terrifies students writing an essay or any other academic paper. After all, you need to know how to use citation to reference sources depending on a selected citation style.
- Quote writing means ‘ cite word by word’ (quote someone). For example, quote a writer’s statement or policy in your text.
So, here in this article, we’re going to talk about different types of quotation and citation, their purposes and work out some good examples in both cases. Let’s start!
Different Types Of Quotation With Examples
In this part, we’ll figure out how to use quote in essay.
Short quotations in essay
In accordance with MLA format, a short quote is not less than four lines in prose or three lines of poetry. If your quote meets these length requirements, then you just need to 1) take a quote in double quotation marks, 2) provide author’s name 3) enter page number. You can insert author’s name before a quote or put it in brackets after the quote. You can simply write page number at the end without using the “p”.
In accordance with MLA format, long quotations considered everything longer than four lines of prose or three lines of poetry. If your quote is suitable, you will have to write it as a separate piece of text without using quotation marks. What should you do? You can insert a quote into a string, putting it in front of a colon, indent quote 1 inch from the left, adhering to the double interval. You can finish the quote putting the punctuation, and after then specify the name of the author and page number in parentheses after the quotation.
In accordance with APA format, to use a short quotation (up to 40 words), you need to simply make sure you included name of the author and page number (with a “p” indicates) in the quotation.
Long quote citation
In accordance with APA format, you need to place a quotation block. You should start a quote on a new line, 1/2 of an inch from the left margin, and enter the quotation, using the same margin. If a quote has some parts, then you can indent the beginning of the new paragraph with 1⁄2 of an inch from the new margin. Support dual spacing within quote in brackets, after punctuation mark in the final. Same rule applies to short quotations — you need to indicate author, year and page somewhere in a quotation. Below you will see some detailed examples.
Now, when we know how to use different types of quotations, let’s take a short look at the examples:
Short quotations in MLA (1) and APA (2) styles:
- In accordance with some critics, literary fiction, “is all but dead in the 21st century”(Smith 200).
- In accordance with McKinney (2012), “Yoga is the best method of stress relief for Americans over twenty today” (p.54).
Long quotations in MLA (1) and APA (2) styles:
- The short story, “The Things They Carried,” lists the items carried by soldiers in the Vietnam war to both characterize them and burden the readers with the weight they are carrying:
The things they carried were largely determined by necessity. Among the necessities or near-necessities were P-38 can openers, pocket knives, heat tabs, wristwatches, dog tags, mosquito repellent, chewing gum, candy cigarettes, salt tablets, packets of Kool-Aid, lighters, matches, sewing kits, Military Payment Certificates, C rations, and two or three canteens of water. (O’Brien, 2)
- McKinney’s study (2011) found the following:
High school English teachers who practiced 100 minutes of yoga per week over the course of a month were able to build better relationships with their students, feel more empathy towards their students and coworkers, feel less stress about grading and other daily tasks, and to even find new meaning in the same novels they had been teaching for many years. (57-59).
Citation, Its Types And Examples
In this part of our article, you will learn about different citation styles and how to correctly use essay citation.
Chicago/Turabian style of citation
- A note indicates name of the author, starting with his first name;
- A bibliography contains author’s surname, following by his name;
- Publisher names can be slightly shortened by omitting abbreviations such as Inc., Ltd., Co. etc.
- If multiple publication locations are specified in the work, only first location is specified but if it is unknown or can be confused with another place with a similar name, then name of the province or state in the postal abbreviations without dots.
- What if one source has two authors? Then the surname of the first author is written first, then his name, then after the Union “and” follows the name of the second author.
- For books authored by more than three persons, but less than ten, all surnames and names are given in full in the bibliography. What else to keep in mind? In the note, however, it is necessary to specify only the surname of the first author, the other names are replaced by phrase “etc.”.
MLA style of citation
- If you have more information about the source, also include in parentheses the author’s name and the page on which the source material was found.
- How to cite Internet sources? If a source material was found on the Internet and does not have a page number, specify only name of the author and name of the source.
- If the name of the author is unknown, is sufficient to indicate in brackets the abbreviated title of the original source.
- If you mentioned the author’s name earlier in the sentence, you should not include it in parentheses again.
APA style of citation
- Indicate the author, date (year) after or before the citation itself;
- Indicate authors (if more than one);
- You can also put an exact page number if using an exact citation.
These are some basic rules to keep in mind. Now you know a little bit more about different types of citation, let’s look at the examples:
“Death happens when we are still alive. Life comes close to the wall of that last darkness, to that ultimate state of being, passing into another. Even a breath separates them. Even a flutter of the eyelashes.”
Carol Shields, The Stone Diaries. (Toronto: random house of Canada, 1993), 342
Shields, Carol. Stone’s Diaries. Toronto: random house of Canada, 1993
In a study of instructional coaches, schools in Wyoming were given grants to hire instructional coaches to provide professional development, to assist in aligning instruction with curriculum standards and assessments, and to work one-on-one with teachers to improve teaching practices (Stock & Duncan, 2010).
Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (263).